Granular flows are important in many situations from industrial hopper flows to avalanches. Members of ABQMR were some of the first to use magnetic resonance to study granular flow dynamics. We pioneered the use of plant seeds as proxy for other granular materials. The oil in the seeds provides good signal and allows study of solid-type flows. Research at ABQMR has explored granular flow in a rotating cylinder where the angle of repose can be measured along with the velocity at each spatial location
J. E. Maneval, K.M. Hill, B.E. Smith, A. Caprihan, and E. Fukushima. "Effects of end wall friction in rotating cylinder granular flow experiments," Granular Matter 2005; 7: 199-202.
E. Fukushima, "Granular flow studies by NMR: A chronology," Adv. Complex Systems, 2001; 4: 1-5.
A. Caprihan and J. D. Seymour, "Correlation Time and Diffusion Coefficient Imaging: Application to a Granular Flow System." J. Magn. Reson., 2000; 144: 96-107.
J. D. Seymour, A. Caprihan, S. A. Altobelli, and E. Fukushima, "Pulsed Gradient Spin Echo Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Diffusion in Granular Flow," Phys. Rev. Lett., 2000; 84: 266-269.
K. Yamane, M. Nakagawa, S. A. Altobelli, T. Tanaka, and Y. Tsuji, "Steady Particulate Flows in a Horizontal Rotating Cylinder," Physics of Fluids, 1998; 10: 1419-1427.
K. M. Hill, A. Caprihan, and J. Kakalios, "Axial segregation of granular media rotated in a drum mixer: Pattern evolution," Phys. Rev. E, 1997; 56: 4386-4393.
M. Nakagawa, S. A. Altobelli, A. Caprihan, and E. Fukushima, "An MRI study: Axial migration of radially segregated core of granular mixture in a horizontal rotating cylinder," Chemical Engineering Science, 1997; 52: 4423-4428.
A. Caprihan, E. Fukushima, A. D. Rosato, and M. Kos, "Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Vibrating Granular Beds by Spatial Imaging," Rev. Sci. Instrum., 1997; 68: 4217-4220.
A. Feinauer, S. A. Altobelli, and E. Fukushima, "NMR measurements of 3-D flow profiles in a coarse bed of randomly packed spheres," Magn. Reson. Imaging, 1997; 15: 479-487.
K. M. Hill, A. Caprihan, and J. Kakalios, "Bulk Segregation in Rotated Granular Materials Measured by Magnetic Resonance Imaging," Phys. Rev. Letters, 1997; 78: 50-53.
E.-K. Jeong, S. A. Altobelli, and E. Fukushima, "NMR Imaging Studies of Stratified Flows in a Horizontal Rotating Cylinder," Physics of Fluids, 1994; 6: 2901-2906.
M. Nakagawa, "Axial segregation of granular flows in a horizontal rotating cylinder," Chem. Engng. Sci., 1994; 49: 2540-2544.
M. Nakagawa, S. A. Altobelli, A. Caprihan, E. Fukushima, and E.-K. Jeong, "Non-invasive Measurements of Granular Flows by Magnetic Resonance Imaging," Experiments in Fluids, 1993; 16: 54-60.
L. Sanfratello, J. Zhang, S. C. Cartee, and E. Fukushima, "Exponential Distribution of Force Chain Lengths: A Useful Statistic that Characterizes Granular Assemblies," Gran. Mat. 13(5), 511-516 (2011).
L. Sanfratello and E. Fukushima, "Experimental Studies of Density Segregation in the 3D Rotating Cylinder and the Absence of Banding," Granular Matter,11(2) (2009) 73-78.
L. Sanfratello, E. Fukushima, and R. P. Behringer, "Using MR Elastography to Image the 3D Force Chain Structure of a Quasi-Static Granular Assembly," Granular Matter,11(1) (2009) 1-6.
L. Sanfratello, A. Caprihan, and E. Fukushima, "Velocity depth profile of granular matter in a horizontal rotating drum," Gran. Mat. 9(1-2), 1-6 (2007).